E-Cigarette, Conventional Cigarette, and Depression: Role of Race/Ethnicity in the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) 2022
Shervin Assari1,2,3,4*, John Ashly Pallera5, Babak Najand6
1Department of Urban Public Health, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA
2Department of Family Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA
3School of Nursing, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA
4Department of Internal Medicine, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA
5Department of Biomedical Sciences, Charles R Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA
6Marginalization-related Diminished Returns Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA
Background: While previous research has established the role of depression as a correlate of tobacco use, limited research has been conducted on potential racial variations in these associations.
Aims: This study had two objectives: (1) to investigate the associations between depression and smoking conventional and vaping e-cigarettes, and (2) to explore the role of race in modifying these associations.
Methods: Data from the Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS-2022) survey, which is a national probability sample of US adults, were analyzed. Variables of interest included lifetime and current smoking status, e-cigarette use, depression (PHQ-4), socioeconomic status (SES), and demographic characteristics. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the associations between depression as the independent variable and current and ever smoking conventional cigarettes and vaping e-cigarettes as dependent variables, adjusting for covariates (age, gender, education, marital status, and employment). We tested potential interactions between race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, Hispanic Whites and any other/mixed race/ethnicity) and depression on our outcomes.
Results: The study findings indicated significant associations between depression and use of conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. Although individuals who were experiencing depression were more likely to use conventional cigarettes (p < 0.05) and e-cigarettes (p < 0.05) compared to those non-depressed, the positive associations between depression and lifetime and current smoking were stronger for Black than White individuals.
Conclusions: This study suggests that depression may have a more salient role in smoking cigarettes and e-cigarette use for Black than White adults. It is unclear if Black adults are more likely to smoke if they are depressed, or if Black adults who smoke cigarettes are more likely to be depressed because of higher stigma and lower access to mental health care services.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2023/1.1181 View / Download Pdf