Charlotte Hill1, Mark G. Jones2,3, Donna E. Davies2,3,4 and Yihua Wang1,4*
1Biological Sciences, Faculty of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.
2Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.
3NIHR Respiratory Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospital Southampton, Southampton SO16 6YD, UK.
4Institute for Life Sciences, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ, UK.
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is the prototypic progressive fibrotic interstitial lung disease. Median survival is only 3 years, and treatment options are limited. IPF is thought to be a result of a combination of genetic and environmental factors with repetitive micro-injuries to alveolar epithelial cells playing a central role. IPF is characterised by aberrant extra cellular matrix (ECM) deposition by activated myofibroblasts. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process where polarised epithelial cells undergo molecular changes allowing them to gain a mesenchymal phenotype, with a subsequent enhanced ability to produce ECM components and increased migration and/or invasion. The source of myofibroblasts in IPF has been debated for many years, and EMT has been proposed as a source of these cells. However, lineage tracing in transgenic mice suggests the contribution of epithelial cells, which have undergone EMT, to the fibroblast population may be negligible. Instead, recent findings suggest that alveolar epithelial type II (ATII) cells undergoing EMT promote a pro-fibrotic microenvironment through paracrine signalling activating local fibroblasts. This review paper explores the contribution of ATII cells, which have undergone EMT, in the context of pulmonary fibrosis.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2019/2.1149 View / Download Pdf
DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2019/2.1150 View / Download Pdf
Tsering Stobdan1 and Gabriel G. Haddad1, 2, 3*
1Division of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
2Department of Neurosciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, USA
3Rady Children's Hospital, San Diego, CA 92123, USA
Madumani Amararathna1, Kerry Goralski2, David W. Hoskin3,4, H. P. Vasantha Rupasinghe1,3*
1Department of Plant, Food, and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Rm 219-C, Cox Institute Building, 50 Pictou Rd. PO Box 550, Truro, NS, B2N 5E3, Canada.
2College of Pharmacy and Department of Pharmacology, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
3Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
4Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS B3H 4R2, Canada.
Treatment complexities and the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs to normal cells often results in therapeutic failure. Biodegradable nanoparticles have gained attention as drug carriers due to their physicochemical characteristics. Nanoparticles are able to encapsulate anticancer drugs and deliver them to target malignant cells while sparing normal cells. Since lung cancer usually arises in lung epithelium, localized drug delivery could be an alternative strategy to effectively treat this disease. Encapsulation of lung cancer drugs in nanoparticles may facilitate intact drug delivery, avoid first-pass metabolism, and reduce cytotoxicity to normal cells, as well as being attractive to patients. However, nanoparticles should be formulated in such a way as to facilitate entrance, deposition, retention, and permeability on targeted lung tissues and escape mucociliary clearance and phagocytosis. Additionally, the patient’s diversity related to lung cancer type, stage of disease, and physical fitness should be considered when formulating a nanocarrier and a delivery device. The potential of localized drug delivery for lung cancer using nanoparticles is reviewed here.
Abbreviations: PLGA, poly(lactide-co-glycolide); MRP1, multidrug resistance associated protein 1; GST, glutathione-s-transferase; NAT, N-acetyltransferease; SULT, sulfotransferases; TRAIL, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2019/2.1148 View / Download Pdf
Paul A. Lilburn1*, Henry Ainge-Allen1, Paul S. Thomas1,2
1Department of Respiratory Medicine, Prince of Wales’ Hospital
2Prince of Wales’ Clinical School and Mechanisms of Disease and Translational Research, University of New South Wales, NSW, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, NSW, Australia
Asthma affects approximately 240 million people worldwide. It is characterised by an allergic pattern of smooth muscle constriction and airway inflammation, and if chronic, the inflammation can lead to structural changes and fixed airflow obstruction. Bronchodilators relieve the bronchoconstriction, while inhaled corticosteroids reduce the airway inflammation. This paper reviews fluticasone furoate (FF), a novel inhaled corticosteroid with 24-hour duration of action. It is a synthetic fluorinated corticosteroid with agonist activity at the glucocorticoid receptor (GRE). It is reported to have a fast association and slow dissociation from the GRE compared to other ICSs. FF has been found to have a greater lung retention time than all other ICS preparations which may contribute to the extended duration of anti-inflammatory action. FF has extensive first pass hepatic metabolism resulting in a low gastrointestinal bioavailability which is consistent with the findings for other ICS preparations. FF, however, will pass from the lung into the systemic circulation and therefore an adverse profile similar to all ICS is likely, but long term data are needed.
FF has demonstrated treatment efficacy for asthma between 100μg and 200μg alone, but in combination with the long-acting beta agonist, vilanterol (FF/VIL 200μg/50μg OD) there were further improvements in lung function relative to monotherapy. There is an increased risk of pneumonia identified in patients with airways disease in associated with ICS preparations and surveillance will be required to determine if this also applies to FF. Once daily therapy, such as FF, may improve compliance and could hopefully be translated into further improvements in asthma-related outcomes.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2018/1.1143 View / Download Pdf
Emanuela Cortesi, Juan-Jose Ventura*
Translational Cell and Tissue Research, Dept. of Imaging and Pathology, KU Leuven, Belgium
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with poor prognosis, mainly due to the delay in the diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer, has the highest incidence and significant recurrence rates. Experimental and clinical researches suggested that the presence of cancer stem cells could support the development, malignization and resistance of lung cancer. Unfortunately, our knowledge in the field is still limited.
Here we report our findings regarding a cell population expressing LGR6, an epithelial stem cell marker. Under the pressure of a fine regulated p38? MAPK/mir-17-92 axis, LGR6+ stem cells produce differentiated bronchioalveolar cells, in the normal lung.
LGR6 is enriched in tumour cells during adenocarcinoma progression. Similar to normal stem cells, LGR6+ cancer cells show self-renewal and differentiation capacities, alongside with a higher oncogenic potential. Our studies suggest a disruption in the p38? MAPK/mir-17-92 network, that enhances Wnt pathway activity, could be responsible for the selection of malignant LGR6+ tumour cells. These results support the existence of a cell population with stem-like characteristics and strong oncogenic potential. This population could be useful for predictive diagnosis and a novel target for improved and more effective therapies against metastases and recurrences of lung adenocarcinomas.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2018/1.1144 View / Download Pdf
Hamid Reza Shoraka1,3, Moslem Taheri Soodejani1, Omid Abobakri1, Narges Khanjani2*
1Dept. of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
2Environmental Health Engineering Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran
3Vector-borne Diseases Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran
Background: Asthma is one of the most common chronic non-communicable diseases which is seen more in the developed than developing countries of the world. Recurrence and exacerbations of the disease are common among patients and often lead to hospitalization and therapeutic interventions. Ambient air temperature might be related to the relapse of asthma. This review was conducted to investigate the relation between ambient temperature and exacerbations of asthma in children.
Methods: Related articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, and Scopus databases with appropriate keywords and no specific limitation on October 1, 2018. Initially, the relevance of the articles was examined using the title and abstract. Out of 2633 articles, 23 articles were eligible according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Results: Fourteen studies had reported inverse relations; and showed as the temperature dropped, the number of asthma attacks increased in children. Nine papers observed a relation between hot weather and asthma attacks, 3 studies reported a relation between temperature differences and asthma attacks, and two studies did not show any relation. Some studies suggested the increased incidence of asthma in the 5-14 year old age group was associated with the start of the school year and probably due to the spread of viral diseases, not temperature changes.
Conclusion: Extreme temperatures are likely to cause exacerbation of childhood asthma.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2018/1.1146 View / Download Pdf
Giuseppe Tarantini*, Luca Nai Fovino, Alberto Barioli, Alessandro Schiavo, Chiara Fraccaro
Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padua, Padova, Italy
The muscle overlying the intramyocardial segment of an epicardial coronary artery is defined as myocardial bridge (MB). The clinical relevance of MBs is extremely heterogeneous, ranging from incidental finding in asymptomatic patients to different clinical manifestations such as stable or unstable angina, arrhythmias, Takotsubo syndrome or other major cardiovascular events. Moreover, patients can evolve from “asymptomatic carriers” to “symptomatic carriers” over time. In this setting, haemodynamic assessment is challenging and optimal therapy still a matter of debate. This review summarizes epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic work-up (including both morphological and functional assessment) and treatment of patients with MB involving the left anterior descending artery, suggesting a pragmatic clinical approach.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/4.1141 View / Download Pdf
Kimberly M. Clark*
MS in Respiratory Care Program, Clinical Associate Professor and Program Director, Department of Kinesiology, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, USA
Interprofessional education (IPE) and collaborative practice have been debated for several decades in the health professions. Over that course of time there have been ebbs and flows of interest in IPE and collaborative practice. Health care reform has brought about a renewed interest. IPE is considered an important component in developing collaborative practice-ready health professionals. IPE readiness, effectiveness, and challenges are considerations for successful IPE implementation. Sufficient evidence exists to suggest that faculty and students are motivated to engage in IPE. Knowledge, skills, and attitudes have been shown to improve with IPE interventions. Questions remain, however, about the linkage of IPE to collaborative practice and health outcomes.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/4.1139 View / Download Pdf
VI Starodubov1, AN Edeleva1, TP Sabgayda1*
1Federal Research Institute for Health Organization and Informatics of Ministry of Health of Russian Federation, 11 Dobrolyubova Str., Moscow, 127254, Russia
The article compares the prevalence of pathological changes in different organs and systems among city and rural residents of the next ages: elderly (60-74 years for men and 55-74 years for women), senile (75-84 years) and advanced (85 years and older) ages. The results of the continuous survey of all persons of the retirement age of one urban (7809 people) and two rural areas (14749) of the Nizhny Novgorod region were analyzed. The region is comparatively homogeneous in terms of the national composition of the population.
In the city, the number of chronic pathologies of different organs and systems per one person of elderly age are: 2.83 for man and 2.76 for woman of elderly ages, 3.06 and 3.07 respectively for senile ages, 2.71 and 2.75 of advanced ages. In rural areas, the analyzed indicators for men and women are respectively 1.64 and 1.58 for elderly ages, 1.84 and 1.78 for senile ages, 1.86 and 1.84 for advanced ages.
Demonstrating the difference in the phenotypic manifestations of the genes of predisposition to chronic diseases in old age between the city and village, the results make it possible to produce the following assumptions. First, better access to medical care does not guarantee the better health status of the elderly, while it contributes to an increase in the life expectancy of men. Second, in spite of better access to health care, urban lifestyle contributes to the accumulation of chronic diseases in population of a region. Third, if chronic pathology of three different classes of diseases presented, then the probability of a long life is fundamentally determined by the access to health care. Fourth, the probability of longevity is significantly reduced in result of illness by neoplasms, cardiovascular, respiratory, endocrine or genitourinary diseases in ages of working or beginning of retirement period.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/3.1140 View / Download Pdf
Anmol Pitliya1, Asrar Ahmad2, Husnain Shaukat1, Eiman Ghaffarpasand1, Sadaf Sharfaei1, Farima Kahe1, Syed Hassan A. Kazmi1, Gerald Chi1*
1Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
2Department of Medicine, Abington Memorial Hospital, Abington, Pennsylvania, USA
Anemia, commonly defined as hemoglobin concentration <12.0 g/dL in women and <13.0 g/dL in men, is a prevalent condition that has been linked to unfavorable prognosis among hospitalized patients. Population-based studies report that low hemoglobin level is associated with various thrombotic disorders including myocardial infarction, stroke, and venous thromboembolism (VTE). A recent study on acutely ill hospitalized patients extends the previous findings and demonstrates that anemic patients were at a greater risk for symptomatic VTE through 77 days of follow-up. Specifically, decreased hemoglobin concentration was associated with a two-fold risk of symptomatic DVT or non-fatal PE, despite the provision of pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis with enoxaparin or betrixaban, an FDA approved direct oral anticoagulant for VTE prevention. Additionally, hemoglobin measurement improved the risk discrimination and reclassification of a well-validated VTE assessment tool (i.e., International Medical Prevention Registry on Venous Thromboembolism [IMPROVE] VTE risk score). Based on these results, future studies should evaluate the use of laboratory biomarkers in conjunction with clinical variables to refine individualized VTE risk assessment.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/3.1133 View / Download Pdf
Anania G1, Fabbri N1*, Marino S1, Resta G1, Giaccari S1, Tamburini N1, Fiorica F2, Cavallesco G1
1Department of Morphology, Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Section of General and Thoracic Surgery, University of Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
2Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy
Aim: The figure of cancer patient has changed. Some reasons are the increase of the average population and higher incidence of diseases related to old age (cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, etc.), but also diseases such as obesity are increasing in industrialized countries. For these reasons is necessary to choose an adequate and personalized treatment, taking into consideration the different risk of mortality and morbidity in therapeutic choices through a greater interaction between medical specialists.
Experiment: we conducted a retrospective study that took into consideration all the patients who underwent surgery of rectosigmoid junction and rectum in our hospital before and after the institution of a multidisciplinary tumour board (MTB) from January 2007 to April 2017. Furthermore, a recent retrospective single-centre analysis was performed in the same hospital by Tamburini et al. on consecutive patients who underwent surgery for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between January 2008 and December 2015.
Results: the advantage brought by the multidisciplinary evaluation teams are confirmed for the presence of benefits in terms of reduction of morbidity and improvement of the outcome of MTB patient group.
Conclusions: we find that more study depth of neoplastic disease as well as of each individual patient leads to more accurate staging and to a weighted therapy based on the needs of the individual. According to our experience, multidisciplinary tumour board should be present in all hospitals where cancer diseases are treated.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/3.1132 View / Download Pdf
H Rawal1*, SS Mehta2
1University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. 611 west Park Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
2Carle Foundation Hospital. Senior clinical and Interventional cardiologist. 611 west Park Street, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA
Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ARCAPA) is a very rare congenital heart defect. Most patients are asymptomatic and the anomaly is detected incidentally during evaluation for other problems. Occasionally, ARCAPA may lead to myocardial ischemia and/or sudden cardiac arrest. Here we highlight the presentation, diagnosis and available treatment modalities for the management of this rare anomaly.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/3.1134 View / Download Pdf
C.A Hing1, A. Alaga1*, M.K Razul1
1Hospital Sultanah Bahiyah, Alor Setar, Malaysia
Pulmonary crytococcosis is a rare infection in immunocompetent patients. It is caused by encapsulated yeast-like fungus Cryptococcus neoformans. A young healthy gentleman presented with 1 day history of dyspnoea and fever, with 2 weeks history of weight loss.
Clinical examination revealed left lung collapse. CT thorax done showed a mediastinal mass with left lung collapse. Tissue obtained from bronchoscopy confirmed presence of Cryptococcus neoformans. The left main bronchial mass was removed during rigid bronchoscopy to expand the left lung. He was given T fluconazole 400 mg OD for 6 months. He improved significantly after the removal of left bronchial mass.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/3.1128 View / Download Pdf
Boushab Mohamed Boushab1*, Abdoulaye Mamadou Traore2, Mamoudou Savadogo3, Sidi Yeslem Ould-Bahiya4, Fatima Zahra Fall-Malick5
1Médecine Interne et Maladies Infectieuses, Centre hospitalier de Kiffa, Assaba, Mauritanie
2Service des Maladies Infectieuses, Hôpital du Point G, Bamako, Mali
3Service des Maladies Infectieuses, CHU Yalgado Ouédraogo, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
4Service d'Imagerie Médicale, Centre National d'Oncologie, Nouakchott, Mauritanie
5Institut National d'Hépato-virologie, Faculté de Médecine de Nouakchott, Mauritanie
Background: In recent years, tuberculosis has been experiencing a renewal which appears to be linked to epidemiological, clinical and paraclinical factors. It is a real public health problem.
Summary: There is a prospective study at Kiffa regional hospital from January 1st to December 31st, 2017,
Objective: The goal was establish the real contribution of chest radiography to patient with respiratory infection diseases with a negative microscope smear.
Results: We recruited 53 cases of pulmonary tuberculosis (79% of all TB cases). For Acid-Fast Bacilli (AFB) in sputum on direct examination and optical microscopy was negative in 52% of cases. The eight patients who accepted the HIV test, 6 were HIV positive. The sex ratio M/F was 1.7 and the average age of patients was 45 years old (range 15-80 years)The most common clinical signs were fever, sputum, chronic cough and chest pain. The radiological aspects of the negative tuberculosis were caves (34%), reticular or reticulonodular (26%), lymph nodes pulmonary hilum opacities nodular (23%), pleurisy (14%) and miliary (3%). In the lung lesion, parenchymal lung lesion were majority, it account for 64%, more of the lesions were located in the right upper lobe(49%).
Conclusion: This approach provided a TB diagnostic tool in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis negative bascilloscopie. In hospital practice, the combination of simple clinical, and radiological symptoms as an aid in the diagnosis of TB. Some Similar studies are needed to improve diagnosis in patients from outpatient suspected TB.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/2.1131 View / Download Pdf
Shao Shuai1, 2, Gao Yue2*
1National Institute for Radiological Protection, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100088, China
2Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850, China
Coagulation abnormalities are critical diseases that threaten the survival of patients. Ferulic acid can regulate the blood coagulation function in two aspects. This paper reviews and discusses the reported mechanisms of the antithrombotic activities of ferulic acid. Previous studies suggested that ferulic acid played a role in antithrombosis by inhibiting platelet aggregation and protecting the endotheliocyte. Meanwhile, ferulic acid has fewer side effects on the platelet, leukocytosis and gastrointestinal tract, because it can promote the formation and differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells and protect the intestinal cells from injury. Therefore, ferulic acid is a potential protector from thrombotic diseases, such as cardiovascular dysfunction, pulmonary thromboembolism and deep vein thrombosis.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/2.1127 View / Download Pdf
James C. Parker1*
1Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, MSB 3074, University of South Alabama, 307 University Blvd. Mobile, AL 36688, USA
Although reduced tidal volumes have improved patient survival during ventilation for acute lung injury, further improvements will require pharmacologic interventions of the cellular pathways for inflammation and injury. We previously reported that pretreatment with mitochondrial targeted mtDNA repair enzymes largely prevented lung injury and inflammation during a protocol for moderately severe ventilation induced lung injury. GSH/GSSG ratios indicated that free radical production had been reduced to baseline levels by treatment. The central role of the alveolar macrophages and cellular mechanisms of injury are discussed. This includes a rapid calcium entry and mitochondrial production of excessive reactive oxygen species. Excessive ROS can then result in activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and secretion of IL-1 and IL-18 by caspase-1. A simultaneous activation of NFkB to transcribe pro forms of the cytokines is stimulated by damage associated molecular pattern (DAMP) recognition receptors. These are primarily TLR4 responding to various cellular damage products and TLR9 responding to mtDNA fragments that appear to be primarily involved. Intervention in these pathways could result in useful future clinical treatments.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/2.1107 View / Download Pdf
Norma Helena Perlroth1* and Christina Wyss Castelo Branco2
1University Hospital Gaffrée Guinle, Department of Pediatrics, Pediatric Emergency Care, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
2Department of Zoology, Institute of Biosciences, Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil
Objective: The present study aims to identify the scientific evidence on the influence of the environment during the critical periods of children’s lung development.
Data source: The search was performed in the Bireme database, using the terms: fetal development, child development, environmental exposure, environmental pollutants, lung diseases, health vulnerability and toxicity pathways in the LILACS, MEDLINE and SciELO systems.
Data synthesis: The vulnerability of children to respiratory diseases due to environmental hazards occurs because very specific physiological characteristics are found in this population. Exposure to toxic agents during the sensitive phases of child development can cause negative impacts to the normal physical lung. The caused effects are reflected in the increased prevalence on children morbidity with temporary or permanent pulmonary damage.
Conclusion: Understanding the effects of environmental exposures on the child lung and how they are established can contribute to the ultimate goal of prevention, i.e. to avoid, minimize or reduce the exposure of children to risk factors for their health.DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/2.1126 View / Download Pdf
A.-S. Advenier1, G. Lorin de la Grandmaison2*
1Department of Forensic Medicine, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France.
2Department of Forensic Medicine and Pathology, Versailles-Saint-Quentin University, AP-HP, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France.
Although lesions related to chemical burns concern digestive tract first, pulmonary damage can also be observed, in cases of inhalation or secondary to gastric aspiration. Pulmonary lesions after caustic exposure are non-specific. Multiple factors may influence the pattern of lesions, including the nature of the caustic substance, the duration of contact, the amount of the substance encountering the tissue and the length of postingestion survival. Significant complications of caustic ingestion such as chemical pneumonitis can develop in the first days or later. This article summarizes the most frequent pulmonary lesions according to the corrosive agent (gas, solid and liquid caustic, arsenic).DOI: 10.29245/2689-999X/2017/2.1119 View / Download Pdf